Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala

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Paradigme ale stiintelor sociale (6)

Paradigme ale stiintelor sociale


Paul Balahur


Lumen, 2006

Cod CED: 1584-5397-14(06)
Dimensiuni pp. 88-111, Revista de cercetare si interventie sociala, vol.14/2006


The concept of scientific paradigm, that was homologated in epistemology by Thomas Kuhns theory about the development of science (in his famous work The Structure of scientific revolutions), has been proved a useful tool for analyzing the social theories and conceptions (despite the fact that the author himself thought the social sciences are still in a pre-paradigmatic stage of their evolution). Many scholars used the concept, in its main meaning as conceptual framework or disciplinary matrix in order to identifying, classifying and analyzing the thinking types, explicative patterns or intelligibility schemes which are characteristic to the most representative theories in social sciences. Presenting, comparatively, such approaches, the study sustains the importance of a so-named paradigmatic method in the epistemology of social sciences. As arguments for this perspective there are identified the main functions of paradigmatic method namely, the analytical, synthesizer, critical and prospective functions and is pointed out the relevance of this method for analyzing the assumptions of social theories, which can be view as their fundaments (further we can dissociate by their nature such fundaments of every social interpretation: ontological, epistemological, methodological, anthropological, axiological, praxiological, sociological, historical and cultural ). 
Comentarii: Conceptul de paradigma stiintifica, care a fost omologat in epistemologie prin teoria lui Thomas Kuhn despre dezvoltarea stiintei (din celebra sa lucrare Structura revolutiilor stiintifice), s-a dovedit un instrument util pentru analiza teoriilor si conceptiilor sociale (in ciuda faptului ca autorul insusi credea ca stiintele sociale se afla inca in stadiul pre-paradigmatic al evolutiei lor). Multi cercetatori au folosit acest concept, in sensul sau principal de cadru conceptual sau matrice disciplinara, pentru a identifica, clasifica si analiza tipurile de gindire, modelele explicative sau schemele de inteligibilitate care sint caracteritice celor mai reprezentative teorii din stiintele sociale. Prezentind, comparativ, asemenea abordari, studiul sustine importanta asa-numitei metode paradigmatice in epistemologia stiintelor sociale. Ca argumente pentru aceasta perspectiva sint identificate principalele functii ale metodei paradigmatice si anume functiile analitica, sintetizatoare, critica si prospectiva si este subliniata relevanta acestei metode pentru analiza presupozitiilor teoriilor sociale, care pot fi vazute ca fundamente ale lor (disociabile, mai departe, dupa natura lor, ca fundamente ontologice, epistemologice, metodologice, antropologice, axiologice, praxiologice, sociologice, istorice si culturale).